Early Scottish villages have been found to date back about 6000 years. The Roman Empire was seen in Scotland around 83 AD. The Romans are responsible for the construction of Hadrianís Wall, which it is believed began construction in 122 AD. Scotland, called the Kingdom of the Picts, became a decidedly Gaelic culture around the 10th century. In the 12th, the country had territories of Norse, English, and Gaelic-speaking residents all across the land.
Against the orders of Edward I of England for Scottish armed forces to war with France, John Balliol led a group of dignitaries to France to enact an alliance between the two nations. This became one cause for the Wars of Scottish Independence that ran from 1296 to 1328.
Scotland was invaded by the Vikings and riddled with war between itself and England until the 1603 Union of the Crowns brought peace within what would soon (in 1707) become Great Britain. Scotland began to grow and blossom over the 18th century and Glasgow gained importance in the British Empire due to cultural, industrial, and educational advances during this time. By the middle of the 1700s, Scotland had grown to be respected as a major part of the British economy and political system contrary to being on the outside of the core, as it had been for so long.
Scottish troops were instrumental in World War I, fighting for the British cause. The war caused unrest in the political system, and the once largely liberal nation was beginning to see an uprising of the Labour Party, though the effort was not strong enough to turn the nation. Although World War II positively impacted Scotland, in general, the nation saw an economic downturn afterward that lasted well into the 1980s and in the 1997, the United Kingdom Parliament allowed for a Scottish Parliament and Government to regain control over the nation.
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